What Is Trips Agreement Upsc

The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an agreement of international law between all World Trade Organization (WTO) member states. It sets minimum standards for the regulation of different forms of intellectual property by national governments, as is the case for nationals of other WTO member states. [3] The TRIPS agreement was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990[4] and is managed by the WTO. With the Advent hybrid and genetically modified plants, it is possible to create different qualities of plants of the same genus or species. There has been endless research into the development of more productive plant varieties, enriched with nutrients, more resistant to the whims of nature and less expensive. Such an evolution, like any other patentable invention, takes a lot of effort and time. The TRIPS agreement stipulates that a member should either cover plant varieties under national patent law or grant sui generis protection. As a result, Indian patent law does not apply to plant varieties and the POPVFR Act provides sui generis protection. Since the TRIPS agreement came into force, it has been criticized by developing countries, scientists and non-governmental organizations. While some of this criticism is generally opposed to the WTO, many proponents of trade liberalization also view TRIPS policy as a bad policy. The effects of the concentration of WEALTH of TRIPS (money from people in developing countries for copyright and patent holders in industrialized countries) and the imposition of artificial shortages on citizens of countries that would otherwise have had weaker intellectual property laws are common bases for such criticisms. Other critics have focused on the inability of trips trips to accelerate the flow of investment and technology to low-income countries, a benefit that WTO members achieved prior to the creation of the agreement. The World Bank`s statements indicate that TRIPS have clearly not accelerated investment in low-income countries, whereas they may have done so for middle-income countries.

[33] As part of TRIPS, long periods of patent validity were examined to determine the excessive slowdown in generic drug entry and competition.