Under international law, a treaty is a legally binding agreement between states (countries). A treaty can be called a convention, protocol, pact, agreement, etc. It is the content of the agreement, not its name, that makes it a treaty. Thus, the Geneva Protocol and the Biological Weapons Convention are the two treaties, although neither treaty in its name. Under U.S. law, a treaty is a legally binding agreement between countries that requires ratification and “consultation and approval” of the Senate. All other agreements (internationally treated) are called executive agreements, but are nevertheless legally binding on the United States under international law. Compliance with a contract can become an issue in two particular circumstances. A contract may be terminated or affected by other means when a state is replaced, in whole or in part, by another state or a new state. This was, for example, a critical issue for some African states after gaining independence.
Armed conflicts may also end or suspend a treaty while hostilities continue. Article 60 of the Vienna Convention also provides for the situation that arises when a contracting party constitutes a substantial violation of its provisions. Such an offence can be considered the reason for the termination of the treaty by other states. Similarly, a fundamental change from the original circumstances of the contract can be invoked as a reason for termination. The IHR (2005) is an international agreement between 194 States Parties and the World Health Organization on surveillance, sunshine and response to all events that could pose a threat to international public health. The objective of the IHR (2005) is to prevent, protect, control and respond to a public health response to the spread of diseases internationally, in a manner adapted to public health risks, limited to them, avoiding unnecessary intervention in international transport and trade. (International Health Regulations, Article 2). For more information, please see THE LA fact sheets. Bilateral agreements on an issue of mutual interest to the States concerned involve bilateral negotiations between them. These contracts are called “contract contracts.” On the other hand, multilateral agreements may include several entities and considerations in their negotiations. This can lead to agreements that make themselves legitimate. A multilateral treaty is usually initiated by a major concern, which is the basis of a study of an international institution such as the World Health Organization, the United Nations Commission on International Law or the General Assembly itself.
One outcome may be preliminary negotiations leading to an international conference to develop an agreement.