For the most part, GATT, as developed after 1947 and which became permanent within the World Trade Organization in 1994, represents three key elements that contribute to the monitoring of world trade and to the way in which national governments allow each other to intervene in this trade. The first is a set of mutually agreed limits (or rules) for the application of restrictive measures by national governments. These were originally defined in the general agreement itself, but were interpreted and developed both later in the negotiations and through the GATT dispute resolution process. The second is progressive liberalization, which must be achieved through negotiations on trade barriers and the removal of trade barriers. These rounds of negotiations, which ended on the basis of reciprocal concessions between member state governments, took place in the 1960s and 1970s (in the Kennedys and Tokyo Round) and in the 1980s until 1994 (in the Uruguay round). NAFTA is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico and the United States that creates a trilateral trade bloc in North America. In addition to facilitating applied tariff reductions, GATT`s contribution to trade liberalization includes “the commitment of extended-term tariff reductions (which became more sustainable in 1955), the definition of universality of non-discrimination through the treatment of the most favoured nation (MFN) and the status of domestic treatment, ensuring greater transparency in trade policies and creating a forum for negotiations and the peaceful settlement of bilateral disputes. All of these have helped to streamline trade policy and reduce trade barriers and political uncertainty.  The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 peripheral Pacific countries (formal member states) to promote free trade and economic cooperation throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Created in 1989 to address the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the emergence of regional economic blocs (such as the European Union) in other parts of the world, APEC is working to raise living and education through sustainable economic growth and to promote a sense of community and appreciation of common interests between Asian and Pacific countries.